分娩的新时代

在人类进化过程中,人类分娩的逐步改进具有重要意义。在1978年之前,没有人认为孩子可以通过IVF出生。1978年7月25日,路易斯是第一个通过体外受精(IVF)出生的女孩,具有所有正常的身体特征。这种医学进步令整个人类兄弟会感到惊讶。

然而,这个成功的故事有许多研究工作。Walter Heape在1840年左右首次开始研究动物品种。在Louise出生之前,近300个IVF周期已经失败。IVF研究员罗伯特爱德华兹在获得IVF作为不孕症治疗的认可后,于2010年获得诺贝尔奖。

据估计,全世界近10%的人口不育,有限的药物治疗无法帮助他们解决问题。今天,体外受精成为临床上建立的生育技术,用于当卵子和精子在雌性子宫内不能正常接触和受精时人工交配卵子和精子。

1980年,Edwards和他的同事Patrick Steptoe开始了第一家私人IVF诊所。他们的IVF中心的不同分支已经在世界各地的不同国家开放并成功运行。

根据疾病预防控制中心的数据,通过辅助生殖技术(ART)的出生率在过去十年中翻了一番。在不同的ART中,IVF是最常用的ART(辅助生殖技术)和全世界数百万通过IVF出生的婴儿。

2017年,研究人员讨论了生育和不育研究论文的安全性和有效性。以色列的一份研究报告显示,通过试管婴儿出生的青少年的心理健康,身体健康和智力与正常出生的孩子相当。

正在进行的生物活动研究和开发试图以更先进的方式进化基因筛查以进化分娩。干细胞研究对于医学研究人员来说是一个很大的希望,作为过度刺激综合征的解决方案。

研究人员预计,激素刺激疗法不需要刺激卵子形成,因为干细胞技术的进步可以带来一些能够在不久的将来将皮肤细胞诱导成配子的技术。因此,没有鸡蛋需要受精。这个消息今天可能让你感到惊讶,但事实是研究人员已经开始在这个领域进行动物研究。

遗传筛查也在不断发展,我们可以期待更多的分娩进展。在新的分娩时代,我们逐渐意识到传统的产前基因检测与产前全基因组测序之间的差异。产前全基因组测序已在某种情况下被纳入临床护理。

临床医生有选择地推荐这些测试以克服某些风险。可以进行新的血液检查,以了解我们孩子的遗传秘密的细节。这种测试通常在妊娠早期进行,以便在胎儿出生前了解胎儿的遗传特征和未来的疾病风险。这些信息有助于减少许多疾病的可能性。

但滥用这种医疗进步可能会导致道德问题。因此,这些测试的应用存在两难,因为这些进步的效益和风险评估仍在继续。

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